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《美国独立宣言》全文

2010-09-04
《独立宣言》,《美国独立宣言》,《独立宣言》翻译,《独立宣言》全文,外国文化知识
《美国独立宣言》全文
《独立宣言》,《美国独立宣言》,《独立宣言》翻译,《独立宣言》全文
美国《独立宣言》(The Declaration of Independence)是一份于由托马斯·杰弗逊(1743-1826)起草,并由其它13个殖民地代表签署的最初声明北美十三个殖民地摆脱英国的殖民统治的文件。1776年7月4日,大陆会议通过了《独立宣言》。

《美国独立宣言》(United States Declaration of
Independence),为北美洲十三个英属殖民地宣告自大不列颠王国独立,并宣明此举正当性之文告。1776年7月4日,本宣言由第二次大陆会议于费城批准,当日兹后成为美国独立纪念日。宣言之原件由大陆会议出席代表共同签署,并永久展示于美国华盛顿特区之国家档案与文件署(National Archives and Records Administration)。此宣言为美国最重要的立国文书之一。

《美国独立宣言》说明,《美国独立宣言》简介



  《独立宣言》由四部分组成:第一部分为前言,阐述了宣言的目的。第二部分高度概括了当时资产阶级最激进的政治思想,即自然权利学说和主权在民思想。第三部分历数英国压迫北美殖民地人民的条条罪状,说明殖民地人民是在忍无可忍的情况下被迫拿起武器的。宣言的最后一部分庄严宣告独立。

  独立宣言之本文可分为五个章节:序文、前言、控诉英王乔治三世、谴责英人、与总结,但独立宣言本文中并没有这五个章节的标题。

  《独立宣言》的民主思想,主要体现在平等、天赋人权、主权在民和人民革命权利这四个方面。

  第一,平等与天赋人权(natural
rights)思想。“天赋人权”又译为“自然权利”,其基本精神是强调人具有与生俱来的权利,这些权利绝不应该被剥夺。《独立宣言》继承并发展了洛克的天赋人权学说,认为人人生而平等,这些权利是大自然所赋予的,不可剥夺,这些权利包括“生命、自由和追求幸福的权利。”

  第二,主权在民(popular
sovereignty)学说。“主权在民”又译为“人民主权”或“一切权力属于人民”,是“天赋人权”在理论上的延伸,其理论要点是:政府合法性的基础来自广大人民的同意,任何一种形式的政府如果变成损害人民利益以保障自己权利的政府,人民就有权改变或废除它,建立新的政府。《独立宣言》提出,人民是主权者,政府的一切权力来自人民,政府应服从人民意志,为人民幸福和保障人民权利而存在。

  第三,人民革命权利的理论。《独立宣言》以天赋人权和主权在民理论为基础,指出:既然政府的权力来自人民,目的是保障人民的自然权利,如果一旦政府不履行职责,侵犯人民的权利,人民就有权起来革命来改变或推翻它。

《美国独立宣言》全文原文翻译



  1776年7月4日北美原十三个英属殖民地一致通过的《独立宣言》原文:

  在有关人类事务的发展过程中,当一个民族必须解除其和另一个民族之间的政治联系,并在世界各国之间依照自然法则和上帝的意旨,接受独立和平等的地位时,出于人类舆论的尊重,必须把他们不得不独立的原因予以宣布。

  我们认为下面这些真理是不言而喻的:人人生而平等,造物者赋予他们若干不可剥夺的权利,其中包括生命权、自由权和追求幸福的权利。为了保障这些权利,人类才在他们之间建立政府,而政府之正当权力,是经被治理者的同意而产生的。当任何形式的政府对这些目标具破坏作用时,人民便有权力改变或废除它,以建立一个新的政府;其赖以奠基的原则,其组织权力的方式,务使人民认为唯有这样才最可能获得他们的安全和幸福。为了慎重起见,成立多年的政府,是不应当由于轻微和短暂的原因而予以变更的。过去的一切经验也都说明,任何苦难,只要是尚能忍受,人类都宁愿容忍,而无意为了本身的权益便废除他们久已习惯了的政府。但是,当追逐同一目标的一连串滥用职权和强取豪夺发生,证明政府企图把人民置于专制统治之下时,那么人民就有权利,也有义务推翻这个政府,并为他们未来的安全建立新的保障--这就是这些殖民地过去逆来顺受的情况,也是它们现在不得不改变以前政府制度的原因。当今大不列颠国王的历史,是接连不断的伤天害理和强取豪夺的历史,这些暴行的唯一目标,就是想在这些州建立专制的暴政。为了证明所言属实,现把下列事实向公正的世界宣布--

  他拒绝批准对公众利益最有益、最必要的法律。
  他禁止他的总督们批准迫切而极为必要的法律,要不就把这些法律搁置起来暂不生效,等待他的同意;而一旦这些法律被搁置起来,他对它们就完全置之不理。
  他拒绝批准便利广大地区人民的其它法律,除非那些人民情愿放弃自己在立法机关中的代表权;但这种权利对他们有无法估量的价值,而且只有暴君才畏惧这种权利。
  他把各州立法团体召集到异乎寻常的、极为不便的、远离它们档案库的地方去开会,唯一的目的是使他们疲于奔命,不得不顺从他的意旨。
  他一再解散各州的议会,因为它们以无畏的坚毅态度反对他侵犯人民的权利。
  他在解散各州议会之后,又长期拒绝另选新议会;但立法权是无法取消的,因此这项权力仍由一般人民来行使。其实各州仍然处于危险的境地,既有外来侵略之患,又有发生内乱之忧。

  他竭力抑制我们各州增加人口;为此目的,他阻挠外国人入籍法的通过,拒绝批准其它鼓励外国人移居各州的法律,并提高分配新土地的条件。
  他拒绝批准建立司法权力的法律,藉以阻挠司法工作的推行。
  他把法官的任期、薪金数额和支付,完全置于他个人意志的支配之下。
  他建立新官署,派遣大批官员,骚扰我们人民,并耗尽人民必要的生活物质。
  他在和平时期,未经我们的立法机关同意,就在我们中间维持常备军。
  他力图使军队独立于民政之外,并凌驾于民政之上。
  他同某些人勾结起来把我们置于一种不适合我们的体制且不为我们的法律所承认的管辖之下;他还批准那些人炮制的各种伪法案来达到以下目的:
  在我们中间驻扎大批武装部队;
  用假审讯来包庇他们,使他们杀害我们各州居民而仍然逍遥法外;
  切断我们同世界各地的贸易;
  未经我们同意便向我们强行征税;
  在许多案件中剥夺我们享有陪审制的权益;
  罗织罪名押送我们到海外去受审;
  在一个邻省废除英国的自由法制,在那裹建立专制政府,并扩大该省的疆界,企图把该省变成既是一个样板又是一个得心应手的工具,以便进而向这里的各殖民地推行同样的极权统治;

  取消我们的宪章,废除我们最宝贵的法律,并且根本上改变我们各州政府的形式;
  中止我们自己的立法机关行使权力,宣称他们自己有权就一切事宜为我们制定法律。
  他宣布我们已不属他保护之列,并对我们作战,从而放弃了在这里的政务。
  他在我们的海域大肆掠夺,蹂躏我们沿海地区,焚烧我们的城镇,残害我们人民的生命。
  他此时正在运送大批外国佣兵来完成屠杀、破坏和肆虐的勾当,这种勾当早就开始,其残酷卑劣甚至在最野蛮的时代都难以找到先例。他完全不配作为一个文明国家的元首。
  他在公海上俘虏我们的同胞,强迫他们拿起武器来反对自己的国家,成为残杀自己亲人和朋友的刽子手,或是死于自己的亲人和朋友的手下。
  他在我们中间煽动内乱,并且竭力挑唆那些残酷无情、没有开化的印第安人来杀掠我们边疆的居民;而众所周知,印第安人的作战规律是不分男女老幼,一律格杀勿论的。
  在这些压迫的每一陷阶段中,我们都是用最谦卑的言辞请求改善;但屡次请求所得到的答复是屡次遭受损害。一个君主,当他的品格已打上了暴君行为的烙印时,是不配作自由人民的统治者的。

  我们不是没有顾念我们英国的弟兄。我们时常提醒他们,他们的立法机关企图把无理的管辖权横加到我们的头上。我们也曾把我们移民来这里和在这里定居的情形告诉他们。我们曾经向他们天生的正义善感和雅量呼吁,我们恳求他们念在同种同宗的份上,弃绝这些掠夺行为,以免影响彼此的关系和往来。但是他们对于这种正义和血缘的呼声,也同样充耳不闻。因此,我们实在不得不宣布和他们脱离,并且以对待世界上其它民族一样的态度对待他们:和我们作战,就是敌人;和我们和好,就是朋友。

  因此,我们,在大陆会议下集会的美利坚联盟代表,以各殖民地善良人民的名义,并经他们授权,向全世界最崇高的正义呼吁,说明我们的严正意向,同时郑重宣布;这些联合一致的殖民地从此是自由和独立的国家,并且按其权利也必须是自由和独立的国家,它们取消一切对英国王室效忠的义务,它们和大不列颠国家之间的一切政治关系从此全部断绝,而且必须断绝;作为自由独立的国家,它们完全有权宣战、缔和、结盟、通商和采取独立国家有权采取的一切行动。

  为了支持这篇宣言,我们坚决信赖上帝的庇佑,以我们的生命、我们的财产和我们神圣的名誉,彼此宣誓。

《美国独立宣言》独立宣言的5个章节和另一版本的翻译


  独立宣言之本文可分为五个章节:序,前言,控诉英王乔治三世,谴责英人与总结,事实上原文中并没有标注这5个章节

  《独立宣言》序
  1776年7月4日,于国会内美洲十三合众州全体一致宣告
  此时此刻,于人事发展进程中,斯属必要者,业为解消一群人民与他群间之政治捆缚,并视其地位─基于自然律与造物主之赐─于尘世诸政权间为互不隶属且相互平等,适切尊重人类宣告独立的目标理想之需求。

  《独立宣言》前言
  我等之见解为,下述真理不证自明:凡人生而平等,秉造物者之赐,拥诸无可转让之权利,包含生命权、自由权、与追寻幸福之权(原意为:pursuit of
happiness,追求快乐)。
  兹确保如此权力,立政府于人民之间,经受统治者之同意取得应有之权力;特此,无论何种政体于何时坏此标的,则人民有权改组或弃绝之,并另立新政府,本此原则,以成此型式之政权,因其影响人民之安全幸福至巨。

  深思熟虑后,当得此论,即建立长久之政府,不应以无足轻重之理由改组,而基于已知之过往,世人宁可容忍积重难返之邪僻。然当连串之滥权者与篡夺者执迷不悟,迫人民屈伏于绝对专制下时,推翻此政府,是其权利,是其义务,并为未来之安稳提供新保障。

  《独立宣言》控诉
  此限制已令各殖民地长久不堪,此事现今亦已成为必要,即由人民改变过往政府体制。大不列颠今上长久以来剥下益上,直接导致遍及各州之专制暴政。为证明斯言属实,且将事实呈交公正之世间。

  他拒绝批准,俾益最深且对公众利益至关紧要之法条。
  他禁止辖下总督们通过当前迫切而必要之法条,延宕法条直至得其恩准;而于留中不发期间,他彻底置之不理。
  他拒绝通过其他法条以调解广大行政区内之人民,除非人民放弃于立法机构内之代表权,此为人民至高无上之权,唯暴君畏之惧之。
  他于异常、不当、且远离公共纪绿保管之处所召集民意代表与会,唯一目的为使其因疲于奔命而屈从于他个人之意旨。
  他反覆解散议会,因其勇于坚决反对他侵犯民权。
  他长期拒绝─于议会解散之后─使其他人当选以让立法权─无可消灭者─回归由多数民意行使;国家长期暴露于一切可能导致动乱之危机。
  他力阻各州增加人口,为达目的而阻挠外籍归化法,拒绝通过鼓励移民内附之法条,并提高拨用新土地之门槛。
  他拒绝通过建立司法权之相关法条,藉以妨碍司法。
  他置司法于个人意志之下,独断决定其职位与薪资之数目与款项。
  他设立大量新机构,送来成群的官吏吸取民脂民膏。
  他于吾民之间维持常备军─于承平时期─不经议会同意。
  他酬庸军权,使之自外于,并超逾民权。
  他勾结他人,使我等隶属之司法体制,既逾越于宪法,亦未经律令之认可。御准虚有其表之议会所炮制之种种法案:
  于吾民中驻扎大军:
  以伪审判卵翼杀人犯逍遥法外:
  切断吾民与他方之贸易往来:
  不经吾民同意即开征税赋:
  多次剥夺吾民由陪审团听审之权益:
  押送吾民至海外,审以罗织之罪名:
  废止英式自由法制于一邻省,立专制政府于其中,并扩展其疆域,作为样板与便宜行事之手段,用以推行相同之威权统治至各殖民地中
  夺吾民之宪章,废止我最具价值之律法并根本改变我政府体制:
  中断我之立法职能,而声称他们有权为我一切大小事宜立法。
  他抛弃此地之政务,声明吾民不在其保护之下,对吾民强加战争之重荷。
  他掠夺我海域,践踏沿岸,焚烧城镇,残民以逞。
  他刻正运来大批外籍佣兵以恣意屠戮、蹂躏、与妄为,其手段之虐酷与卑劣几与最野蛮之时代毫无二致,作为一个文明国家之元首,完全失格。
  他强俘吾民于公海且武装之,以对其母国不利,强令其成为亲朋好友之刽子手,或被害者。
  他煽动内乱于吾民之间,图我开疆拓土之民;众所周知,未开化之印地安野人作战法则为不分男女老幼格杀勿论。
  于承受如此压迫之时期吾民谦词请愿兴革:吾民一再之请愿遭回以反覆之伤害。一国之君,其品格已然烙下可称为残虐之措施时,已不配作为自由民之统治者。

  《独立宣言》谴责
  并非我等未曾顾念我不列颠之同胞。我等曾不时警示其企图,即外延立法权以将非法之司法管辖权笼罩吾民。我等曾提醒其民,我移民与垦殖者之状况。我等曾吁其天生之正义感与雅量,我等曾求其以同文同种之情一改前非,其作为,无可避免地影响双方之关系与往来。他们对情理之声充耳不闻。我等必须因而顺势宣告与之分离,并待之如待其余人等,敌视我者敌视之,睦我者睦之,友我者友之。

  《独立宣言》总结
  领衔签署者们主张(现时人民须改组政府之态势,不列颠致之),各殖民地有必要推翻与不列颠主权之政治束缚,成为独立国家。结论之核心,包含于7月2日通过之李氏决议文。

  我等,美利坚合众国之代表,召开全员大会,为吾民之公正意向世界最崇高之正义吁求,以各殖民地正直善良民意之名义,及其授权,郑重发表与宣告,团结之诸殖民地为,亦有权是,自由独立之国家,有权宣战、媾和、缔盟、建立贸易关系、从事其他独立国家有权行使之事务。为支持此宣言,以神赐之洲之屏障为坚固依靠,吾等相互托付生命、财产、与荣誉。

《美国独立宣言》英文原文


  First Draft
  When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for a people to
advance from that subordination in which they have hitherto remained, and to
assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which
the laws of nature and of nature's god entitle them, a decent respect to the
opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel
them to the change
  We hold these truths to be [sacred and undeniable] selfevident, that all men
are created equal and independent; that from that equal creation they derive in
rights inherent and inalienables, among which are the preservation of life, and
liberty and the pursuit of happiness; that to secure these ends, governments are
instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the
governed; that whenever any form of government shall become destructive of these
ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute
new government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing it's
powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety
and happiness. prudence, indeed, will dictate that governments long established
should not be changed for light and transient causes: and accordingly all
experience hath shewn that mankind are more disposed to suffer while evils are
sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are
accustomed. but when a long train of abuses and usurpations, begun at a
distinguished period, and pursuing invariably the same object evinces a design
to [subject] reduce them to arbitrary power, it is their right, it is their
duty, to throw off such government, and to provide new guards for their future
security. --
  Such has been the patient sufferance of these colonies; and such is now the
necessity which constrains them to expunge their former systems of government.
the history of his present majesty is a history of unremitting injuries and
usurpations, among which no fact stands single or solitary to contradict the
uniform tenor of the rest, all of which have in direct object the establishment
of an absolute tyranny over these states. to prove this, let facts be submitted
to a candid world, for the truth of which we pledge a faith yet unsullied by
falsehood.
  Second Draft
  In Congress, July 4, 1776,
  THE UNANIMOUS DECLARATION OF THE THIRTEEN UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
  When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to
dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to
assume among the Powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which
the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the
opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel
them to the separation.
  We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that
they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among
these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness.
  That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving
their just powers from the consent of the governed.
  That whenever any form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is
the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new
Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers
in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and
Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established
should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all
experience hath shown, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are
sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are
accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably
the same Object, evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Des potism, it
is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide
new Guards for their future security.
  Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the
necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The
history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries
and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute
Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid
world.
  He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the
public good.
  He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing
importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be
obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
  He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of
people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the
Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.
  He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable,
and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of
fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.
  He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly
firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.
  He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be
elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have
returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the
mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions
within.
  He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose
obstructing the Laws of Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to
encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new
Appropriations of Lands .
  He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to
Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.
  He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their
offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.
  He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers
to harass our People, and eat out their substance.
  He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent
of our legislatures.
  He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the
Civil power.
  He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our
constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of
pretended Legislation:
  For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:
  For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from Punishment for any Murders which
they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:
  For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:
  For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:
  For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:
  For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences:
  For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province,
establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as
to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same
absolute rule into t hese Colonies:
  For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering
fundamentally the forms of our Governments:
  For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with
power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
  He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and
waging War against us.
  He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed
the Lives of our people.
  He is at this time transporting large armies of foreign mercenaries to
compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with
circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous
ages, and totally unworthy the H ead of a civilized nation.
  He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear
Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and
Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.
  He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring
on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known
rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and
conditions.
  In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most
humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury.
A Prince, whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant,
is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.
  Nor have We been wanting in attention to our British brethren. We have warned
them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an
unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances
of our emigration and sett lement here. We have appealed to their native justice
and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to
disavow these usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and
correspondence. They too have been deaf t o the voice of justice and of
consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces
our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War,
in Peace Friends.
  We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General
Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the
rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good
People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United
Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they
are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political
connection between them and the State of Great Bri tain, is and ought to be
totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power
to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do
all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. An d for the
support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the Protection of Divine
Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our
sacred Honor.
  JOHN HANCOCK, President
  Attested, CHARLES THOMSON, Secretary
  New Hampshire: JOSIAH BARTLETT, WILLIAM WHIPPLE, MATTHEW THORNTON
  Massachusetts-Bay: SAMUEL ADAMS, JOHN ADAMS, ROBERT TREAT PAINE, ELBRIDGE
GERRY
  Rhode Island: STEPHEN HOPKINS, WILLIAM ELLERY
  Connecticut: ROGER SHERMAN, SAMUEL HUNTINGTON, WILLIAM WILLIAMS, OLIVER
WOLCOTT
  Georgia: BUTTON GWINNETT, LYMAN HALL, GEO. WALTON
  Maryland: SAMUEL CHASE, WILLIAM PACA, THOMAS STONE, CHARLES CARROLL OF
CARROLLTON
  Virginia: GEORGE WYTHE, RICHARD HENRY LEE, THOMAS JEFFERSON, BENJAMIN
HARRISON, THOMAS NELSON, JR., FRANCIS LIGHTFOOT LEE, CARTER BRAXTON.
  New York: WILLIAM FLOYD, PHILIP LIVINGSTON, FRANCIS LEWIS, LEWIS MORRIS
  Pennsylvania: ROBERT MORRIS, BENJAMIN RUSH, BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, JOHN MORTON,
GEORGE CLYMER, JAMES SMITH, GEORGE TAYLOR, JAMES WILSON, GEORGE ROSS
  Delaware: CAESAR RODNEY, GEORGE READ, THOMAS M'KEAN
  North Carolina: WILLIAM HOOPER, JOSEPH HEWES, JOHN PENN
  South Carolina: EDWARD RUTLEDGE, THOMAS HEYWARD, JR., THOMAS LYNCH, JR.,
ARTHUR MIDDLETON
  New Jersey: RICHARD STOCKTON, JOHN WITHERSPOON, FRANCIS HOPKINS, JOHN HART,
ABRAHAM CLARK
  Pennsylvania: Robert Morris, Benjamin Rush, Benjamin Franklin, John Morton,
George Clymer, James Smith, George Taylor, James Wilson, George Ross
  Delaware: Caesar Rodney, George Read, Thomas McKean
  Maryland: Samuel Chase, William Paca, Thomas Stone, Charles Carroll of
Carrollton
  Virginia: George Wythe, Richard Henry Lee, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin
Harrison, Thomas Nelson, Jr., Francis Lightfoot Lee, Carter Braxton
  North Carolina: William Hooper, Joseph Hewes, John Penn
  South Carolina: Edward Rutledge, Thomas Heyward, Jr., Thomas Lynch, Jr.,
Arthur Middleton
  Georgia: Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, George Walton.

《美国独立宣言》《独立宣言》扩展阅读:



  杰斐逊曾写道,《独立宣言》是“吁请世界的裁判”。自1776年以来,《独立宣言》中所体现的原则就一直在全世界为人传诵。美国的改革家们,不论是出于什么动机,不论是为了废除奴隶制,禁止种族隔离或是要提高妇女的权利,都要向公众提到“人人生而平等”。不论在什么地方,当人民向不民主的统治作斗争时,他们就要用杰弗逊的话来争辩道,政府的“正当权力是经被治者同意所授予的”。

  《独立宣言》认定的真理“人人生而平等”与奴隶制的得以保护,这对比是如此的强烈。然而,这就是真正的历史。但是,自1776年以来,“人人生而平等”作为美国立国的基本原则,作为人们的信念和理想,就一直在全世界为人传颂。美国正义的社会改革者们,在各个社会的历史阶段,为了废除奴隶制,为了禁止种族隔离,为了妇女解放,都提到这一理想;而人民在反对不民主、不公正的统治时,也都以此作为最有力的思想武器。

《独立宣言》之影响

  美国的独立宣言受1581年荷兰共和国宣告独立之影响,吁求誓绝(Oath of Abjuration)。苏格兰王国于1320年的阿布罗斯宣誓(Declaration of Arbroath)作为史上第一次的独立宣言,毫无疑问也具有影响力。

  独立宣言包含多名开国元勋之基本理念,其中若干日后获编入美国宪法中。1848年赛尼卡福尔斯会议页面赛尼卡福尔斯会议并不存在,英语维基百科对应页面为Seneca Falls Convention。的《感性宣言页面感性宣言并不存在,英语维基百科对应页面为Declaration of Sentiments。》以此为本。日后越南与罗得西亚等国之独立宣言亦本诸于此。在美国,独立宣言经常为日后之政治性演说所引用,如亚伯拉罕·林肯之盖茨堡演说,与马丁·路德·金恩博士之著名演说《我有一个梦》。独立宣言也激励了人权和公民权宣言,即法国大革命中的根本宣言之一。
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中世纪哲学的“风采”
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外国文化1 外国文化2

本栏目主要介绍外国文化,中外文化知识方面,包括最新的国外文化,外国文化习俗,外国文化遗产,外国文化知识,《美国独立宣言》全文等。特别关注有关人与文化的价值方面的研究。

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