The proposal aims toinvestigate the structure and mechanisms of the eukaryotic glucosetransporters. Based on their previous phenomenal success with a bacterial GLUThomolog, the applicant will study the very challenging mammalian MFS glucosetransporters. As the applicant acknowledged, obtaining significant amount ofprotein samples and crystallize them remain a technical hurdle for theeukaryotic transporter (specific aim 1). Unfortunately, most of the otherspecific aims are dependent on solving the structures. Does the applicant havebackup plans, such as EM, solid state NMR, if the structural targets in aim1could not be crystallized or the crystals did not diffract X-ray well enoughwithin the time frame of the grant?