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文化的根源可能在于基因(Cultural genetic baggage)

2009-06-06
文化的根源,Cultural genetic baggage
文化的根源可能在于基因(Cultural genetic baggage)

正如关于人类的起源有很多的说法一样,关于文化的定义也有很多。许多社会学家和人类学家都下过定义.我们引用泰勒1871年提出的经典性定义:文化,就其在民族志中的广义而论,是个复合的整体,它包含知识 信.艺术 道德 法律 习俗.和个人作为社会成员所必需的其他能力及习惯。

文化的根源是什么?一般的认识是。文化是人类社会特有的现象。文化是由人所创造,为人所特有的。有了人类社会才有文化,文化是人们社会实践的产物。
<自然>发表了最新的研究认为<文化的根源可能在于基因(Cultural genetic baggage)>.就我们的看法这其实是人本和文化的关系问题,我[本站]一直猜想认为人本和文化是可以互相转化的.

Nature 28 May 2009
De novo establishment of wild-type song culture in the zebra finch

对人和对其他动物来说,我们都倾向于认为文化是某种通过社会学习传播的东西。但文化多样性之某些方面的物种特性以及某一特定物种不同个体之间的差异都表明,文化的根源可能在于基因。

Fehér等人通过分析斑胸草雀的一个海岛群落中通过社会形式学到的鸟鸣的形成过程,对后一个问题进行了探讨。虽然这个群落最初的创始成员在发育过程中从未接受过鸣叫辅导,而且其叫声与野生型有显著不同,在仅仅经过三代或四代之后,辅导产生的叫声就会接近野生型的叫声。这些发现表明,物种特异性鸣叫文化可以从头形成,这与尼加拉瓜人手语的从头演化非常相似,该手语由马那瓜的聋儿自发形成,与口头语言在语法上具有相似性。(Nature 28 May 2009 ,Letter p. 564; Making the paper p. 481)

原始出处:

Nature 459, 564-568 (28 May 2009) | doi:10.1038/nature07994

De novo establishment of wild-type song culture in the zebra finch

Olga Fehér1, Haibin Wang2, Sigal Saar1, Partha P. Mitra2 & Ofer Tchernichovski1

1 Department of Biology, City College, City University of New York, New York 10031, USA
2 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York 11724, USA

Culture is typically viewed as consisting of traits inherited epigenetically, through social learning. However, cultural diversity has species-typical constraints1, presumably of genetic origin. A celebrated, if contentious, example is whether a universal grammar constrains syntactic diversity in human languages2. Oscine songbirds exhibit song learning and provide biologically tractable models of culture: members of a species show individual variation in song3 and geographically separated groups have local song dialects4, 5. Different species exhibit distinct song cultures6, 7, suggestive of genetic constraints8, 9. Without such constraints, innovations and copying errors should cause unbounded variation over multiple generations or geographical distance, contrary to observations9. Here we report an experiment designed to determine whether wild-type song culture might emerge over multiple generations in an isolated colony founded by isolates, and, if so, how this might happen and what type of social environment is required10. Zebra finch isolates, unexposed to singing males during development, produce song with characteristics that differ from the wild-type song found in laboratory11 or natural colonies. In tutoring lineages starting from isolate founders, we quantified alterations in song across tutoring generations in two social environments: tutor–pupil pairs in sound-isolated chambers and an isolated semi-natural colony. In both settings, juveniles imitated the isolate tutors but changed certain characteristics of the songs. These alterations accumulated over learning generations. Consequently, songs evolved towards the wild-type in three to four generations. Thus, species-typical song culture can appear de novo. Our study has parallels with language change and evolution12, 13, 14. In analogy to models in quantitative genetics15, 16, we model song culture as a multigenerational phenotype partly encoded genetically in an isolate founding population, influenced by environmental variables and taking multiple generations to emerge.
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文化研究1 文化研究2 文化研究

本栏目主要介绍文化发展研究方面,包括中国社会文化、文化遗产、文化科学、科学与文化、中国传统文化、文化的根源可能在于基因(Cultural genetic baggage)等。特别关注有关人与生命的意义与生命的价值方面的研究。

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